The effectiveness of clenbuterol bodybuilding

The effectiveness of clenbuterol bodybuilding


Unlike ephedrine outputting from the body within a few hours, clenbuterol activity reaches a peak at the eighth hour after administration and has a fat-burning effect that lasts for many hours.

“Work” Clenbuterol generally does not interfere with the ordinary cycle of the organism. This is – just one of the facets of the drug, which is becoming increasingly popular among bodybuilders.

Klenebuterol bodybuilding

Clenbuterol is a very widely used in bodybuilding. Here are the main effects of the drug which have made it popular among athletes:

Contents [Hide]

  • Clenbuterol BodybuildingKlenebuterol bodybuilding
  • How to take clenbuterol
  • Side Effects
  • Clenbuterol for weight loss (more rigid scheme)
  1. Burning fat cells.
  2. Drying muscle.
  3. Increased body temperature.
  4. Suppression of appetite.
  5. Anti-catabolic effects.
  6. Anabolic effect.
  7. Weight Loss.
  8. Emotional mobilization.


Clenbuterol is inherent in a rare and perhaps unique quality: a drug to speed up the pace of building muscle while burning fat. Of course, the growth of muscle is not as significant as when taking other drugs, and does not go beyond reasonable.

Clenbuterol is used particularly active in women’s fitness halls. In the United States shree venkatesh international there was a time when none of the female gym was unimaginable without klenbuterolschits-athletes.

Available drug tablets of ten to twenty micrograms, and also ampoules for injection and 0,016 milligrams as a syrup. The most convenient and popular form – pill Clenbuterol Without Prescription. The standard norm of daily tablet intake is five to eight men and four – for women. Course lasts two weeks of taking the pills.

In chemical terms clenbuterol is a selective beta 2 antagonist stimulating anavar australia beta receptors in muscle and fat tissues. It should be said that Clenbuterol is one of the most controversial of all the drugs estimated that bodybuilders use.

For example, there are experts who argue that the anabolic effects from the drug is absent, and clenbuterol is only effective for burning fat.

Clenbuterol was initially declared a two-day drug half-life, however, this is not entirely correct, because the process of destruction of the drug and withdrawal of it from the body takes place in two phases – short and long (several days).

dianabol before and afterl increases the efficiency of the body and, therefore, prohibited for use buy pct australia at sporting events. Despite the ban World Anti-Doping Agency, many athletes, particularly bodybuilders continue to use clenbuterol to burn excess fat and build muscle.

Prolonged exposure to clenbuterol on the body is still unknown. Animal studies gave disappointing results: the drug can lead to apoptosis of muscles, including the heart. So with drug intake should be very cautious and carefully follow the dosage.

How to take clenbuterol

From the first to the sixth day, the athlete can gradually increase the dosage of clenbuterol twenty micrograms. On the first day of the course dose should be twenty micrograms. With the sixth and twelfth day can withstand the dosage of 120.

The next stage – a gradual reduction in dose. On the thirteenth day of the athlete takes eighty micrograms, on the fourteenth – 40. This is followed by a two-week break. Clenbuterol is best taken in the morning, it will reduce the side effects. Reaching the dosage in one hundred twenty micrograms a href=”” target=”_blank” title=”testosteron propionaat”>testosteron propionaat, you can start taking clenbuterol twice a day – morning and afternoon, smashing into two dose sixty micrograms.

To reduce the risk of side effects (insomnia, nervous and mental excitement, palpitation), clenbuterol should be used with ketotifen – allergy medications.

Here is the course co-administration of clenbuterol and ketotifen:

  • From the first to the fourth day of buy clenbuterol uk is applied as described more above (from twenty to eighty micrograms and four days).
  • On the fifth day take one hundred micrograms of clenbuterol and one microgram ketotifen.
  • The sixth and twenty-seventh day of the course the athlete receives one hundred twenty micrograms of clenbuterol and two microgram ketotifen.
  • Twenty-eight days – eighty micrograms of clenbuterol, two micrograms of ketotifen.
  • Twenty-ninth day – fifty micrograms of clenbuterol and two microgram ketotifen.
  • The thirtieth day – thirty-five micrograms of clenbuterol and one microgram ketotifen.
  • The two-week break.

Clenbuterol should be taken in the morning, high dosages to split into two doses. Ketotifen take evening.

A still stronger effect was observed with the combination of clenbuterol and thyroxine, but in this case, and increases the risk of side effects.

Side effects

Admission clenbuterol can enhance cardiac ventricles (hypertrophy), dangerous forms of damage to the heart, arrhythmias, cell death and even death. In addition, the reception of clenbuterol can cause muscle tremors, blood pressure, increased sweating, headache, insomnia, vomiting and nausea.

The fact is that taking clenbuterol is often drawn to the loss of body potassium, and the probability of occurrence of seizures. To eliminate this danger, clenbuterol should be used in conjunction with Pananginum and asparkamom.

Athletes seriously decided to use clenbuterol during training, you have to weigh the benefits and risks of the drug. Especially dangerous is the continued use of sopharma clenbuterol, which can lead to very dangerous consequences.

Bodybuilders who use clenbuterol need to be absolutely sure of the purity and quality of the drug they use. If, despite all the dangerous effects, the athlete decided to use Clenbuterol, it should acquire it only proven sellers.

Clenbuterol for weight loss (more rigid scheme)

Clenbuterol is a general rise in body temperature. Each degree above normal increases the flammability of calories by five percent. It was as a fat burner clenbuterol is considered the most effective.

Clenbuterol activates the nervous system, leading to the launch of lipolysis (fat burning). With a property to suppress the activity of lipoprotein lipase, Clenbuterol leads to deposition of fat cells that becomes impossible. Moreover, the drug enhances the production of thyroid hormones, which also leads to increased zhiroszhigatelnogo effect.

Another universal effect of clenbuterol – anti-catabolic effects. Clenbuterol is the most effective way to protect muscle tissue from destruction by this process, as a sports drying. Because of this effect the drug has moderate anabolic effect.

Because of its unusual properties, clenbuterol is mainly used in bodybuilding for fat burning and drying. Supplements – Ketotifenum and thyroxine.

Clenbuterol drying

Clenbuterol is particularly popular among athletes preparing for competitions. Particularly intense fat is burned, if the drug is bodybuilding motivation combined with thyroid hormone “Cytomel.”

For optimal fat burning such a scheme dosage: five to seven tablets a day for men (about 140 micrograms of the drug) and 80 micrograms for women. Take the drug athlete begins with a single pill, gradually increasing the dose. Clenbuterol dosage regimen designed to burn fat, quite a lot and they are described in the relevant literature.

Clenbuterol is not a hormone drugs, so he does not have the characteristic of the influence of anabolic steroids. Clenbuterol is a kind of a legend among bodybuilders, the drug is surrounded by a lot of rumors that prove to be false.

Clenbuterol drying (dosage)

For the most important process in bodybuilding – drying, clenbuterol is used in such dosages:

  • For men – 120 micrograms per day.
  • For women – 80-100 micrograms per day.

Course admission clenbuterol can not continue for more than two weeks (after the deadline begins to develop tolerance to the drug, and the positive effect is reduced). After a course of treatment is necessary to make a two-week break, and then continue the course.

Applying jointly with clenbuterol Ketotifenum, you can achieve greater efficiency rate and slightly increase its duration. Clenbuterol is combined with a variety of anabolic steroids and in some cases, enhances their effect. In principle, clenbuterol is allowed to include in the final stage of acceptance of anabolic steroids. To receive a course of clenbuterol was the most effective, you need to follow a diet and to ensure a constant intake of vitamins and protein.

If your goal is to burn fat and increase muscle, you should look for safer and more efficient methods than clenbuterol. Even some anabolic steroids do not cause such a large number of side effects. In addition, an excellent result gives thoughtful training routine and proper nutrition.

bodybuilding magazine free act rapid insulin personal trainer for bodybuilding

Clenbuterol with oxandrolone

Clenbuterol with oxandrolone

The use of clenbuterol is very frequent in sports instruction for its use is not very complicated and can be in different versions. The most important thing you need to understand why you want to make this a non-steroidal, but at the same time very strong anabolic drug.

The most common use of clenbuterol going for a quick and good sgonke fat mass and its layers, due to processing and burning fat tissue in training and during the holidays. This drug helps to break down fat molecules and convert them to energy, such unique properties are not in multiple formulations.

Clenbuterol is one of Moldova’s most famous bodybuilding. His many bodybuilders use after the course as a bridge for the maximum possible conservation gain muscle mass from destruction. This helps to keep the anabolic from the harmful effects of oxidation and muscle cells.

Klenbuteroil guide for the average athlete looks like this:

1) Acceptance of anabolic drugs, always start with the lowest dosage it is 20 – 40 mg. per day.

2) Drink clenbuterol should always be in the first half of the day to 12.00 days. If taken in the evening, it is possible that there will be insomnia.

3) Drink for two days with the same dosage of the drug minimal, then slightly increase your intake to 20 – 40 micrograms. Make sure the reaction to increase the dosage.

4) If the first three days you drank with increasing dosage normally safely, following days, increase at the same pace and watch the reaction of your body.

5) On average, you have to reach a daily dose of 120 micrograms of clenbuterol in. per day if you are a heavy and experienced athlete can receive and 160 micrograms. Such a scheme should take you approximately 14 – 16 days.

6) After that makes the rest of clenbuterol for two weeks and re-start with a minimum dosage of a new two-week same reception. Total short two-week cycle, you should have three in each two-week vacation from the use of clenbuterol.

7) With each short course of the anabolic drug will give better results and performance.

Instructions like clenbuterol and its application is simple if you follow the above listed recommendations on the use of this powerful anabolic drug.

the use of clenbuterolThe most important thing to start drinking it with the smallest dose, not more one tablet on the first day, even from such a dose you do not have a habit can be half an hour to start pounding heart, even when you are at rest sitting on a chair. Palpitations can reach such a peak, if you run five kilometers to cross. This is a normal reaction to fear it is unnecessary, pain is not. And within 1 – 2:00 heartbeat is restored.

Clenbuterol can be use in conjunction with oxandrolone, this approach is very well done Mezhuyev strong rates. You can, and their muscle mass to the maximum to retain fat and fiber significantly reduced.

Clenbuterol is not the easiest anabolic drugs, so during application may cause temporary minor side effects, they are caused by the temporary nature until your body adjusts to its effects. They can be expressed in this form.

– Cardiopalmus

– An increase in body temperature (especially in the evening)

– Trembling fingers (usually the first two hours after treatment)

– Increased sweating (this process is inevitable when sgonke adipose tissue)

– Insomnia (most often occurs during the evening reception of the drug)

All these symptoms are unpleasant, but they are generally harmless and associated more with getting used to the reception of a new anabolic drug.

Clenbuterol guide the correct application is primarily based from the minimum starting this anabolic. Do not just take 120 micrograms. daily dosage necessary for this approach gently for 4 – 6 days. Then the result will be much higher and demonstrations and you will be able to avoid unpleasant moments on this course.

The use of clenbuterol is very good to oksaveru from Vermodzhe. Two drugs interact perfectly, while helping to achieve large and high performance in strength and lean muscle mass clenbuterol for fat loss.

Clenbuterol instruction in the application does not change when you add a bunch of one of the soft steroids. Always start with a minimum dosage gradually lift the drink for two weeks, and then rest for the same period. But during the rest continue to drink oxandrolone. Such an approach would be the most correct and effective.

clenbuterol information

Clenbuterol Info


In this review article, we describe what clenbuterol, its application in losing weight. The second half of the article is entirely devoted to the side effects of clenbuterol, about where to buy, how to apply, and the question of its legality. But first, a little history: Hollywood discovered clenbuterol, announced his miracle drug for weight loss and started a new craze for diet pills. It was said that figures for the size zero Hollywood elite is clenbuterol, and that it is chosen celebrity. It would seem that more and more women are using clenbuterol for fast and easy weight loss. Clenbuterol is particularly popular among athletes in the field of bodybuilding and sports endurance and strength, where it is used as a drug, increases efficiency. Clenbuterol is also known as “maple” and “size zero pill”.

What is Clenbuterol?

Clenbuterol (Clenbuterol) – a substance similar to steroids, but it is not a steroid. It belongs to a group of drugs known as β2-adrenostimulyatorov. Clenbuterol has similarities with stimulant drugs (which increase the rate of heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, etc.), such as adrenaline (ephedrine) and amphetamines.

Clenbuterol was first developed as a bronchodilator to treat and relieve the symptoms of equine asthma. Its main therapeutic application in many countries is still limited to horses, with the proviso that any horse that received clenbuterol can not be subsequently slaughtered for food.

Clenbuterol for weight loss

clenbuterol effectsSide effects” of clenbuterol is its catabolic (fat loss) and anabolic (growth of skeletal muscles) properties. It is not clear why clenbuterol is fat loss and muscle growth. However, bodybuilders and athletes quickly adapted this effect and used alone or in combination with other substances for muscle growth and weight loss. Clenbuterol is particularly popular among athletes because it does not produce androgenic side effects of anabolic steroids (physical, behavioral and functional side effects – such as virilization, the development of the male body type, deepening of the voice, hairiness, acne, not to mention some of the physiological effects of some of which are irreversible) clenbuterol information Clenbuterol Effects.

There are no human studies to support the use of clenbuterol or its safety. Research clenbuterol were limited to animal studies. Some animal studies have indeed shown that Clenbuterol causes a loss of body fat and increase muscle growth.

Clenbuterol. Side effects.

The list of potential side effects of clenbuterol – a long and dangerous, and the reason for that is that the effect of clenbuterol on the human body, as well as its fat burning features are not fully understood clenbuterol effects. If you are thinking about the use of clenbuterol for weight loss, you need to very carefully examine this list and decide – whether there are risks associated with clenbuterol information the intake of clenbuterol, the benefits of its application.

Clenbuterol: short-term side effects

Short-term side effects of clenbuterol in humans, mostly were discovered as a result of accidental overdose from eating meat containing clenbuterol. Short-term side effects include the following clenbuterol effects:

  • The pressure muscle
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Acceleration of the pulse
  • Palpitation
  • Insomnia
  • Dry mouth
  • Vomiting
  • Trembling, tremors (especially noticeable in the hands)
  • Anxiety
  • Nervousness
  • Headache
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Skin rash

Many of these side effects passes when clenbuterol excreted. However, long-term effects of clenbuterol in the human body are less well understood.

Safety testing of the drug for humans has been conducted, and the information was obtained from incidents such as in Spain in 1994, when 140 people were hospitalized in China in September 2006, which poisoned 330 people in connection with the intake of meat, contaminated clenbuterol. Information was also received from several disparate private study, among those who have used clenbuterol because it pohudatelnyh effects.

Clenbuterol: long-term side effects

Animal studies show that clenbuterol increases the size of cardiac muscle cells by increasing the number of inelastic material, known as collagen. This non-elastic material reduces the efficiency of the heart pumping blood, thereby reducing its performance. Collagen also prevents electrical signals sent through the heart muscle cells, which maintain regular pumping blood and can lead to arrhythmias (irregular heart function). This, in turn, increases the risk of strokes. Further studies in rodents have also found that clenbuterol induced cell degeneration of the heart. Animal studies have also shown that clenbuterol adversely affect the structural aspects of the heart and can lead to the expansion of the aorta after exercise, which increases the risk of rupture of the aorta, and sudden death.

Furthermore, the use of clenbuterol may exacerbate any existing problems with heart or blood pressure problems. It is also believed that the left-sided cardiac atrophy (weakening of the left side of the heart) can occur very quickly (possibly just four weeks, taking the drug at high doses).

Clenbuterol is known to adversely affect the mechanical properties and micro-structure of bone, increasing the fragility of bones. More muscle mass combined with the very fragile bones and increases the risk of fractures.

The extent of damage that can cause clenbuterol on developing bodies is unknown.

Overdose Clenbuterol

Symptoms can occur within minutes of taking clenbuterol and take hours or even days, in connection with the long-term toxicity, due to the long half life of clenbuterol (clenbuterol to withdraw from the body takes a long time).

  • Tachycardia (racing heart, rapid heartbeat such as up to 200 beats per minute)
  • Hypokalemia
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • The depletion of taurine
  • Headache
  • Shiver
  • Shortness of breath
  • Dizziness
  • Paralysis
  • Clenbuterol and weight gain

Despite a long and potentially life-threatening list of possible side effects of clenbuterol, there is one side effect of most interest to those who want to lose weight. It is known that during long-term use, clenbuterol suddenly loses its effectiveness and cause rapid weight gain – perhaps due to the effects exerted on the metabolism. It is believed that this can occur after 3 – 4 weeks of application.

Clenbuterol: application and dosage

As the use of Clenbuterol as a drug for weight loss or improve athletic endurance – illegally, recommendations for use and dosing have not been received from clinical trials or from medical professionals. Instead, all that can be found on the Internet – funny lovers recommendations on how to take clenbuterol using illegal products.

Where to buy Clenbuterol is legal and whether it?

In many countries such as the US, Australia and most European countries, clenbuterol is legal only for the use of horses for the treatment of asthma. However, in the UK and Canada, storage and purchase for personal use is not illegal. While in the UK, the storage of large amounts of clenbuterol to sell is a crime. It is important to keep in mind that if someone has a lot of clenbuterol, it may be suspected of intending to sell, and may be prosecuted.

In addition to the legal drugs of clenbuterol for medical use, there is a black market for clenbuterol. There is always the risk of buying fake Clenbuterol, which may contain small clenbuterol and active ingredients, or even worse – a product contaminated with impurities. Often, clenbuterol illegally imported from other countries, such as Canada and Mexico. Clenbuterol is banned in sport and is considered doping.

Clenbuterol Effects

Clenbuterol Effects


Athletes and bodybuilders use clenbuterol is mainly due to its thermogenic and anti-catabolic effects.

Clenbuterol (often simply called “maple”) – is not a steroid, is a sympathomimetic and central nervous system stimulant, a specific agonist which stimulates beta-2 adrenoceptors. In some countries it is used in medicine as bronholiticheskigo for the treatment of asthma because of the long half-life. However, in the US and the UK it is not allowed to use.

Athletes and bodybuilders use clenbuterol is mainly due to its thermogenic and anti-catabolic effects. Effect of the drug is that it significantly increases the core body temperature. This increases the calorie consumption. It is believed that the increase in body temperature by 1 ° volume increases calorie burning by 5%. Animal studies suggest that clenbuterol has an anabolic properties. These drug effects are mild in humans, probably because of the small numbers of beta-3 receptors, increases the production and insulin sensitivity.

The drug is dosed micrograms. The most common form is a tablet, although there are other forms – solutions, nasal sprays and injections. Note that although the drug buy clenbuterol uk is dosed micrograms, many manufacturers indicate the amount of active ingredient in milligrams thus on a tablet weighing 20 g will be given 0.02 mg.

Side effects and possible effects of Clenbuterol

The degree of side effects depends on the dose of clenbuterol, while taking the drug say that the majority of side effects diminish with prolonged administration. It is recommended hcg mixing to be used with caution Clenbuterol in conjunction with other adrenoceptor agonists as side effects may be intensified. For this reason it is not recommended to take with maple ephedrine, or a combination of ephedrine-caffeine-aspirin.

The most common side effects of Clenbuterol include:

  • Headache;
  • Muscle tremors (especially hand tremor);
  • Muscle cramps;
  • Nervousness;
  • Insomnia;
  • Increased sweating;
  • Increased appetite;
  • Nausea;
  • Palpitations;
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure);
  • Possible cardiac hypertrophy as maple affects the smooth muscle fibers of the heart and muscle tissues;
  • In animal studies, phenomena were observed tissue necrosis of cardiac muscle.

Considering the listed side effects of the drug, should not take stimulants like Clenbuterol, those with impaired cardiac function or hypertension. Taking the drug with caution should be those who are already taking these drugs for treatment. In addition, there is not enough reliable information on the cardiac effects of high doses of the drug in humans.

Recommended dosage

Clenbuterol InfoIt is well known that the use of clenbuterol inhibits beta-2 receptors. This is due to the stimulating effect of the preparation. So take maple for long periods without interruption inappropriate. It is believed that the alternation of two days of drug administration with a two days break keeps the susceptibility of the receptors. However, clenbuterol has a relatively long half-life, and the drug continues to operate even during the breaks. A more practical two-week course will be taking the drug with a two-week break. Maximum plasma drug concentration achieved after 2 to 3 hours after oral administration, and half-life of 34 hours. (Research Zimmer, 1976).

A gradual increase in the dose recommended to prevent the possible severe side effects. It is usually recommended to start a course to receive one tablet (20 mg) on ​​the first day, increasing to one tablet daily. Assuming normal tolerability, the seventh day dose of 140 mg (7 tablets), and that amount should be taken throughout the second week of the course. Exceed this dose does not make sense, because it will cause a glut receptors. The gradual reduction of the dose is also not necessary.

In the course of the next cycle, the 5th and 6th week, so it is not necessary to gradually increase the dose, since one tablet is now known as you as your body carries the drug. For example, if the first round was finished on seven tablets a day, then the next, you can start with a 4 – 5 tablets, and gradually increase to seven. This is followed again restrict the 7 th or 8 tablets per day Clenbuterol Info.

During the two-week break and if you want to take a mixture of ephedrine-caffeine-aspirin (ECA). ECA will not cause such inhibition and receptor desensitization as Maple. In comparison with the maple bodybuilding exercises, from ephedrine short half-life, so the buds have time to recover from stimulation by adrenaline and noradrenaline. Strength of ephedrine and less than Maple because it is not a specific agonist. It is believed that ephedrine accelerates the conversion of endogenous and exogenous thyroxine to triiodothyronine through the activation of the enzyme monodeiodinase regulating this process. This important property of ephedrine as Maple slows the conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. It is worth noting that some bodybuilders take drugs triiodothyronine simultaneously with Clenbuterol / ECA courses “drying” of muscle (of course, together with certain anabolic / androgenic steroids) to maintain normal levels of triiodothyronine in blood. The duration of the courses Maple / ECA is normally limited by 12 weeks, and sometimes less time.

Women tend to take smaller doses than men. Max at the reception is 80 – 120 g (4 – 6 tablets).

In addition to the fat burning effect of clenbuterol, it is often used as an anti-catabolic in drug after courses of steroids to maintain the gain muscle mass. In this case the dose is 40 micrograms per day.

Because of the long half-life of Clenbuterol is not necessary to divide the daily dose into several times. Most people take the entire dose in the morning, though some are taking medication before bed in order not to suffer from side effects in the waking state.

It is believed that the division of the daily dose into several times a little help ease the side effects. The most appropriate regime for the administration of the drug itself can pick up watching the reactions of the organism.

Muscle cramps

Muscle cramps – the most common side effect of clenbuterol. They probably occur because the depletion of taurine in the liver in combination with deficient electrolytes sodium and potassium, and inadequate hydration. Taurine helps to strengthen cell membranes and prevents the excitement of the nervous system. Some studies show that getting taurine as an additive reduces the painful muscle spasms. Japanese scientists have found that the longer the experimental rats were exposed to physical stress, the more taurine lose their muscles. (Study Mattsuzaki 2002)

Symptoms of muscle cramps can be facilitated by such means:

  • Eating fruits, especially bananas;
  • Ensuring adequate hydration;
  • Additional supplementation with taurine, 3 – 5 grams per day;
  • Potassium supplements, 200 – 400 mg daily at bedtime on an empty stomach.


Ketotifen – is an antihistamine used in medicine for the treatment of asthma and allergies. It produces a sedative and calming effect on the nervous system. Its effect is to reduce histamine release that accompanies allergic reactions. Ketotifen blocks the action of histamine receptors and reduces response of the nervous system to allergic reactions.

Histamine – a biogenic compound body supplement stacks, which under certain conditions causes hypersensitivity reactions, i.e. allergies. Allergic reactions can manifest inflammation of the skin, respiratory tract, or body tissues, rashes, itching of the skin, eyes or mucous membranes, nasal congestion or a narrowing of the airways.

Bodybuilders are showing interest in the drug, since it prevents the inhibition of beta receptors, which are affected by Maple. Ketotifen clears these receptors, preventing them from oppression, even during the strengthening of the Clenbuterol. This means that you can take clenbuterol indefinitely fitness bodybuilding without interruption to restore the sensitivity of receptors. The daily intake of 2 – 3 mg ketotifen can restore susceptibility of even heavily oppressed receptors for one week. Furthermore, in this case there is no need to increase the dose of clenbuterol to achieve the same results. It can take 30-40% less maple, and this dose will be as effective.

Studies that establish the optimal dosage ketotifen, has been conducted, but most consider taking a dose of 3 to 4 mg of the ideal. It can be divided into portions, or receive at one time. Higher doses may cause drowsiness and increased appetite (sometimes augmented degree).